Trust is very valuable in today’s world. People trust their data with  you and in some cases, this means they trust their lives with you. The  internet by design is an open and transparent system used to deliver  information. This design competes directly with how we use the modern  internet today. That is why it is important to understand TLS and  implement it on your websites. TLS isn’t just a piece of software, the  underlying social architecture that is embedded into the Root CA system  gives a user confidence that when they connect to your website, it is  actually your website and that their connection is secure.

What is TLS?

TLS is basically the “Cone of Silence” for online transactions. TLS  enables transactions between two parties (i.e. “You” and “Your  Customer”) to be conducted securely. There are two parts to TLS: Public  Key Encryption and TLS Communication. Public Key Encryption is the  method that is used to encrypt data used in secure communications and  TLS Communication refers to the implementation of Public Key Encryption  on web servers.

How does Public Key Encryption work?

Public Key Encryption (PKE) solves the problem of how a party can  talk to another party without both parties knowing that the  communication ahead of time. This is solved using Asymmetric Encryption,  which means that the keys used to encrypt and decrypt are different  (i.e. “asymmetric”). The two keys are:

  1. Private Key: this is the secret key that can be used to decrypt  data. In symmetric encryption, this key is used for both decryption and  encryption.
  2. Public Key: this is a key that is derived from the Private Key. This key is used to encrypt data to prepare it for sending.

In a PKE scenario, the party wishing to receive communications  distributes their key, and the party sending information uses that key  to encrypt their message. Once they have encrypted the data they can be  sure that the data is sent securely to the recipient, even if it is via  an insecure communication medium.

Message flow using public key encryption.
Message flow using public key encryption.

Why should you trust Certificate Authorities?

Root Certificate Authorities (Root CAs) are a small list of companies that have been given the right to be automatically trusted by major Operating  Systems and Web Browsers. They earn this right by following policies and  procedures set forth by vendors.  One of the main policies that Root CAs need to abide by is ensuring  that the Private Keys for their Root CA are kept safe. Most Root CAs  achieve this by issuing Intermediate CA certificates which have shorter  life spans, and can be revoked easily by the vendor.

A certificate chain.
A certificate chain.

When a user requests a certificate from a CA, they will have to  verify that the domain they are requesting the certificate for is  theirs. The usually do this via email or DNS records. Once this is  confirmed, the CA issues the certificate to the user. From now on, a  person connecting to the server using this issued certificate can be  sure that the server is actually owned the domain holder. This surety  ensures that users are not susceptible to Man-in-the-Middle attacks or  other hacks that try to intercept encrypted communications.

Those responsible for managing the lists of trusted Root CAs can take  action when a CA is negligent in the undertakings they agree to.  Recently, Google decided to revoke some Root CAs controlled by Symantec  because of their negligence.  This resulted in users seeing the error below when they browsed to  websites with untrusted websites. This was the first large-scale  punishment against a CA who did not follow the established rules. This  reaction gives us faith in the Root CA system.

Message presented to users of websites with untrusted Symantec Certificates
Message presented to users of websites with untrusted Symantec Certificates


It is important to note that this system doesn’t necessarily verify who a person is, only that they own the domain you are connecting to. It also does not verify that a server  hasn’t been compromised. A trusted certificate alone is not enough to  verify that a server should be trusted. Examples of scenarios where a  trusted certificate will not help:

  1. A hacker has compromised a server and is siphoning information  on the server and not interfering with the communications between it and  clients.
  2. A hacker has purchased a legitimate domain and hosts a  legitimate certificate. They use this “legitimate” secure server as a  platform to perform spearphishing or host spyware.
  3. A company has  mishandled their private keys and an untrusted third party has used  them to create new certificates that can be used on servers not owned by  the domain owner.

So, How does TLS, PKE, and CAs work together?

Now that we understand how PKE and CAs work, let’s look at the  process a client and server go through to establish secure  communications.

  1. A client connects to a server and sends it information about the version of TLS it can use.
  2. The  server responds with instructions on which protocol, cipher, and other  methods the client should use to communicate with the server. The server  also includes it’s RSA certificate.
  3. The client receives the RSA  certificate and validates it against it’s Certification Authority (CA)  Root Store. This step establishes Social Trust: a trusted entity (Root CA) has vouched that your server is who it says it is.
  4. Once  the client is satisfied that your server is trustworthy, it generates a  temporary key and sends it back to the server using the certificate’s  Public Key.
  5. The server responds with it’s own temporary key, which has been signed using it’s private key.
  6. The  client verifies the temporary key it has received from the server by  checking the public key against the signed temporary key.
  7. Once all of the keys have been verified, communications are now encrypted.

Once this handshake has taken place, your communications are  encrypted and all future messages will be sent using the temporary keys.

Not so complicated after all!

That’s a very brief introduction to PKE, TLS, and Root CAs. While I  haven’t covered everything, I hope that you now understand why it should  be important to you. Activating TLS on your web servers provides:

  • Confidence to users that you are who you say you are.
  • Secure communications between you and your users.

The best part of it all? You can implement certificates for free on your servers using either Let’s Encrypt or (if you use AWS) Amazon Certificate Manager.

Thanks for reading! If you’d like to offer some suggestions for future content, please contact me.

Further Reading